Vinné – Viniansky Castle

History

   The beginnings of the Vinné castle are unknown, it is estimated that it was built at the end of the 13th or at the beginning of the 14th century. Together with the nearby castles in Brekov and Jasenov, it guarded the old trade route from Hungary to Poland. The first mention of it comes from 1312, from the period of fights of king Charles of Hungary with the family of Omodejovce. The castle belonged to the Staray, a noble family from Michalovce and was part of the local estate. In 1471, during the Polish-Hungarian war, it suffered serious damage from the hands of Polish troops. It was rebuilt at the beginning of the next century. At the same time it was also enlarged of the courtyard, which adjoined the old castle, and from the other three sides it was surrounded by a new wall. In 1594 the castle was again besieged and captured, this time by the Habsburg troops. The destruction was much more serious than the previous one. It was rebuilt again, but the fortifications were not modernized to become resistant to artillery fire, so it lost its military significance. It never became a center of property, because its owners had more comfortable palaces in Michalovce and Vinné. After the fall of Francis II Rákóczi’s uprising, the castle was demolished.

Architecture

   The original castle from the 13th century consisted only of a circumferential defensive wall with a thickness of 1.7-2.1 meters, which shape was similar to a triangle with a corner directed towards the expected greatest danger. In the sixteenth century, it houses a corner, three-sided tower. The road to the castle led from north, it was protected by a double earth rampart and a moat. The gate was placed on the south-eastern side in the gate building (7.3 x 7.3 meters) protruding outside the perimeter of the walls.
   Inside, the 14th century, main residential house, 16.5 x 10.5, was erected on the east side. It had a basement, ground floor and two upper floors, therefore it could resemble a tower-type building. Inside the ground floor, it was divided into three main rooms of equal size. Further chambers were added at the end of the fifteenth century on the southern side in a separate range. On the western side, three arcades with a rib vault and a communication tower have been added. In the eastern part, a small avant-corps protruding outside the perimeter of the walls probably housed the chapel of St. Margaret. Another 10×12 meter residential or economic building was located on the south side. It is difficult to determine its form today, it could be, recorded in sources in 1449, the Great Tower (Magna Turris), described as a tower with cellar and with four floors. In the second half of the fifteenth century, the castle was enlarged by an external defensive wall.

Current state

   The castle now consists of a heavily damaged square defensive tower, which stood at the gate, and to the right of it is the best-preserved building – a gothic palace. It forms a whole with a second tower, attached to it from the west. In these buildings, preserved in the original height, there are openings on the windows and doors with gothic frames as well as traces of vaults and plasters. Under the palace there are basements. The courtyard is overgrown with bushes that partially hide the defensive walls. The remaining residential and commercial buildings have remained in a different condition, but poorer than the walls of the palace. In recent years, restoration works have been carried at the castle.

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bibliography:
Bóna M., Plaček M., Encyklopedie slovenských hradů, Praha 2007.
Wasielewski A., Zamki i zamczyska Słowacji, Białystok 2008.