Skalica – city defensive walls

History

   The first written mention of Skalica comes from 1217, when it is mentioned under the name Zakolcha. At that time it was still a very modest settlement, requiring colonization, which was indicated in a document from 1217, when it was given to the two sons of Nitra zupan, Aleksander (Thomas and Šebuš). At the beginning of the 14th century, it first became a free market settlement, and in 1372 king Louis I of Hungary granted it the rights of a free royal city. Soon, the construction of the city walls began. The construction of city defensive walls was completed around 1435. In the eighteenth century, fortyfications lost their importance and were gradually dismantled.

Architecture

   The ring of stone defensive walls was about 2000 meters long, the height of the wall reached 8 meters, and the thickness was 1,8 meters. Their upper part ended with a guard sidewalk and battlements. Two main gates led to the city: Holíčska and Strážnicka, and two smaller ones: Severni (North) and Jižní (South). In addition, there were two wicket gates within the walls: Upper and second at the municipal tower.
  
In the fifteenth century, the rotunda of St. George standing near the northern wall has been rebuilt and gained defensive functions. It did not connect directly with the defensive wall, but stood in close proximity to it and was connected to the sidewalk in the crown of the walls by a wooden footbridge.
    Near the northern fragment of the fortifications earlier, probably yet in the 12th century, there was a small oval-shaped stronghold, surrounded by an earth rampart and a ditch. Its fortifications probably consisted of a timber palisade. Perhaps it was still used in the 15th century, as evidenced by the preserved city map from 1470. It shows the bridge connection of the stronghold with city fortifications and a three-nave church functioning next to the city walls.

Current state

   To this day, the remains of the Northern Gate and several sections of the walls have been preserved. The best preserved fragment is located in the area of the Franciscan monastery in the south – eastern part of the city. In addition, significant fragments are found in the north-western part near the rotunda of St. George.

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bibliography:
Bóna M., Plaček M., Encyklopedie slovenských hradů, Praha 2007.

Website eksploratorzy.com.pl, Skalica – mury miejskie i pozostałości Bramy Północnej (Słowacja).