Križovany nad Dudváhom – Holy Cross Rotunda

History

   Rotunda of the Holy Cross was built in the first half of the 13th century, and its call gave the name of the whole village. In the gothic period, the windows along the sides of the southern portal were enlarged to improve the interior lighting. During the Tököl uprising in 1678-1687, the rotunda was occupied by the insurgents and transformed into a stable for horses. During the baroque period, in the years 1760-1780, a new church was built into the rotunda. Two baroque windows were built in the nave of the rotunda, and medieval elements – windows and friezes were bricked up than. In 1937, the baroque temple was pulled down to provide room for a larger one. Also, the rotunda was to be destroyed, fortunately the State Office for the Protection of Monuments in Slovakia stopped these activities. The romanesque rotunda was thus included in the new three-story building as a side chapel. In 1967, artistic and historical research began, after which original medieval elements were discovered.

Architecture

   The rotunda consists of a cylindrical nave and a horseshoe apse. It belongs to the smaller structures of this type, as its nave is 5.4 meters in diameter, and its apse has 3.4 meters in diameter. The walls are about 1 meter thick. The apse is illuminated with original Romanesque windows of small dimensions and splayed on both sides, while the nave received two slightly larger gothic windows on the sides of the southern portal in place of the original window openings. The façades of the nave and apse are decorated under the roof with a frieze in the shape of a repeating Cyrillic letter Ұ. The interior of the nave was vaulted in the Gothic tradition by a six-part rib vault connected with a round boss, while the apse was covered with a traditional conch. In addition, three sedilia were created in the nave, separated by round pillars for two seats each. Originally there was also a gallery in the western part of the nave.

Current state

   The rotunda is a very good example of late Romanesque architecture, thanks to its harmonious proportions, which were not disturbed by later superstructures and annexes, but unfortunately some of the walls were destroyed due to the addition of an early modern church. It belongs to the local Roman Catholic parish and is open to the public except of the hours of masses.

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bibliography:
Website apsida.sk, Križovany nad Dudváhom.
Website krizovany.sk, Rotunda sv. kríža.