Wolin – open air museum

History

    The first traces of people in the area of ​​Wolin come from the Stone Age around 4200-1700 years old. The excavations testify to the existence of settlements continually, in all later epochs: bronze, iron, Roman period and migration period. With the beginning of the migration of peoples in the IV-VI a.d. on the island of Wolin began to appear Slavs. The location above the Dziwna and the access to the sea were excellent conditions for setting up a settlement here. An additional advantage was the trade routes running through these areas. The early medieval town was a small settlement, which quickly expanded suburbs and became the center of the religious life of the Slavic Svetovid. In the immediate vicinity of the hillfort were built cemeteries: today Młynówka and Hill of the Hangers. In the 9th century Wolin was surrounded by powerful wooden and earthen fortifications. The village took on urban features and became the capital of the Wolinian tribe. The greatest development of the settlement was in the 9th and 12th centuries.
   
About the history of this city speak german chronicles and scandinavian sages. Wolin occurs in them as Jom and Jomsborg. According to Jomswikingasag jarl Palnatoki built a fortified town in the 10th century, touching the open sea. Huge harbor, capable of accommodating 300 ships, was closed with an iron gate over which the guards the stone towers. The Viking team was supposed to organize daring expeditions.
   
After the victory of Mieszko I over the Wolin in 967 the city was incorporated into the Piast state. Less than a century later, the castle became independent and reached its peak. Suburbs were set up on the south and north sides, and in the immediate vicinity suburban settlements. Since the beginning of the second millennium, apart from trade, the inhabitants have begun to corsair. In 1043 Danish king Magnus Good in retaliation for the despair of Danish coasts, attacked Wolin. The city was conquered and destroyed. In 1098, the Danish army of King Eric I re-entered under the city and gained the bailey. After the rebuilding of Wolin until 1121, it conducted independent politics, when it lost his independence and the Wolins people were subordinated to the Pomeranian prince Warcislaw. In 1140, Pope Innocent II approved the first bishopric in Pomerania, a Wolin bishopric with the cathedral of St. Adalbert. The first bishop was Adalbert, chaplain of the Polish prince Boleslaw the Wrymouth.
   
In the second half of the twelfth century, the role of long-distance trade, which was the basis of the wealth of the inhabitants, fell, and the city was destroyed several times by Danish pirates. These invasions were the main cause of the fall of Wolin, but the problem was also proximity of Kamień Pomorski, which tried to subdue Wolin and the competition of nearby Szczecin, which had better conditions for development. Wolin was no longer able to return to his former glory. In addition to the destruction of the hillfort,  the sanding of the river, which sealed the decline of trade, also contributed to its downfall. The transfer of the bishopric to Kamień in 1176 was a complement to the fall of the city.

Architecture

    The museum presents the life of an early medieval settlement in Wolin. There are reconstructions of residential and craft buildings from the period 9th – 11th century. The museum also includes gates, embankments and fortifications along with the harbor. The huts were built in the framework of 3.5 x 6.5 meters. The walls were erected from horizontally and layered wooden logs, joined in corners in the simplest form. This way of joining elements in huts was found during excavation works in Biskupin and in many early medieval settlements.

Current state

    In the open-air museum there are huts of mint master, ambermen , leatherer, potterer, glazierer, hawkerer, jewelerer, fisherman, scribbler, bookbinder, currency exchange and merchant magazine. You can see what the everyday life of the former people looked like and how they lived and worked. In the interiors of the huts you can watch replicas of furniture, tools and everyday items from a thousand years ago.
    The annual Slav and Viking Festival is held in Wolin.
It is one of the largest international medieval events in the world. Participants in the carefully crafted costumes present the old crafts, take part in various games and plays, historical events and cruises with replicas of historic boats. The biggest attraction of the festival is the reconstruction of the battle. You can also visit the center of the Slavs and Vikings in the period: April – June in the hours. July – August, 10.00 – 18.00 and September – October in the hour. 10.00 – 16.00.

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bibliography:
Website wikipedia.org, Historia miasta Wolin.