Szczytno – teutonic castle

History

   The Ortelsburg Castle was built before 1360, as the seat of the Teutonic pfleger, who managed the southern part of the Elbląg commandry. The initiator of its construction was the oberstspittler and commander of Elbląg Ortulf von Trier, from whose name the German-speaking name of the castle comes from. Soon, settlers started coming to the settlements at the fortress, mainly from nearby Mazovia. They started to call Ortelsburg as Szczytno, making a name from the Latin names of the nearby lakes Sciten Maior and Sciten Minor. The then castle was still a timber building, which was destroyed by Lithuanians in 1370.
  
At the end of the 14th century, a new brick castle was erected on the site of the destroyed building. It suffered serious damages in the fifteenth and early sixteenth century during the wars with Poland. During the Thirteen Years’ War, after the capture of the Prussian Confederation, for almost a year and a half, the Polish garrison was stationed there. Later, they had to surrender the stronghold to the overwhelming Teutonic forces. After the Second Peace of Toruń from 1466, the castle remained within the borders of the Teutonic state, and after secularization in 1525, the seat of the princely starosts was established in it. Due to the proximity of the wild forest, it began to play the role of a hunting residence. The renovation of the castle was commissioned in 1579-1581 by the prince of Prussia, Margrave George Frederick Ansbach. These works transformed the stronghold into an early modern residence, the representative interiors were covered with wall paintings and valuable furnishings. Due to the border location, important diplomatic meetings took place here. At that time, the building received external fortifications with four round corner towers.
  
In the 17th century, during the Swedish wars, the castle deteriorated and at the end of that century it was abandoned. In the 18th century, the eastern wing and external fortifications were demolished, in order to obtain building material for the local population. At the end of the eighteenth century, the main tower and the southern wing were also destroyed. The dismantling was continued unfortunately in the next century. The outer ward was destroyed during the construction of a new town hall in the 1930s. The first archaeological research began in 1924, when the outline of the castle’s complex from early modern times was unveiled and partly reconstructed.

Architecture

   The castle was situated on the isthmus between two lakes, on the northern side, close to the shore. It was built of brick on a very tall, stone plinth. It was a regular complex on a square plan with a side length of 39 meters. From the south adjoined the economic outer ward with entry from the east. The whole was surrounded by a wide, hydrated moat.
  
The main castle consisted of four, probably three-storey wings, 11 meters wide, with timber cloisters around the inner courtyard. In the south-west corner there was a huge, four-sided tower measuring 9×9 meters, extended in front of the face of the perimeter walls. Its height is unknown, it is only known that it was placed on a huge, stone pedestal. The original layout of the rooms is also unknown. It is known that in the south range there was an entrance gate. The north wing had a cellars, it had porch to the dansker tower. The ground floor plan of this range is similar to the layout of other main houses in Teutonic pfleger’s castles, for example in nearby Nidzica, and often the main houses were placed in front of the entrances. One can therefore suppose that the northern wing was the main building of the castle in Szczytno, where the most important chambers could be placed: the refectory and the pfleger’s chambers.

Current state

   To this day, the walls of the ground floor  of three wings of the upper castle have been preserved, together with part of the inner divisions and pillars. However, this is the outline of the building after the transformations from early modern times. Only weakly legible relics left of the southern wing and the main tower.

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bibliography:
Garniec M., Garniec-Jackiewicz M.,  Zamki państwa krzyżackiego w dawnych Prusach, Olsztyn 2006.
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.