Stargard Szczeciński – St John’s Church

History

    The church was built in the first half of the 15th century as a result of the expansion of the chapel, erected by the Knights Hospitaller. The relics of this 13th-century romanesque temple, in the form of granite blocks, were incorporated into the pillars of the central nave of the present chancel.
   The construction of the new church began in 1408, which is confirmed by the inscription on the south facade of the tower. Work on its completion and on the naves lasted until about 1463, while slightly earlier, probably around the middle of the fifteenth century, work began on the rebuilding of the chancel to the form with an ambulatory, inspired by the Stargard collegiate church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Also in the mid-fifteenth century, the wife of the mayor of the town – Henning Mildenitz, founded a chapel, added to the church from the south, and before 1480, from the north side of the tower was built a chapel called “turri anexa”. The next stage of the construction was, at the end of the 15th century, the erection of originally unplanned chapels, which surrounded the eastern part of the church with a wreath. At the same time, a sacristy adjacent to the church’s corpus from the north had to be built. The final shape of the church was the result of long-term construction and changing concepts.
   
The temple was successfully avoided by fires, destroying the medieval city. However, in the years 1540 and 1697 the winds, and perhaps the structural errors, were destroyed twice the tower, which helmet fell down, crumbling the vaults and sidetower chapels. The church suffered greatly during the Second World War.

Architecture

   The church was erected as a hall building with three naves and the chancel with an ambulatory on the eastern side and a lofty four-sided tower from the west. The compact body of the church corpus and the chancel were covered with a common high, gable roof, while the polygonal presbytery was surrounded by a wreath of lower chapels covered with mono-pitched roofs. The whole church was surrounded by buttresses, while those at the ambulatory were decorated with blendes and traceries, which is a very simplified version of the decoration of the lesenes of choir of the collegiate church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The tower in the upper parts was fragmented with high triads of blendes, also modeled on Blessed Virgin Mary decorations.
   The central nave of the chancel, separated by massive, four-sided pillars, was divided into two bays close to the square and a polygonal bay of the eastern closure. A four-armed stellar vault in rectangular bays flows down to the corbels, and in the eastern bay it is based on ancillary columns descending to the floor. In the aisles of the presbytery, a stellar vault was used in the six-arm variant, also based on ancillary columns running down to the floor. The diagonal bays of the ambulatory were covered with a rib vault. In the chapels, open to the ambulatory by arcades, stellar, diamond and cross-rib vaults were used.
   In the main corpus, the octagonal pillars marked three laterally rectangular bays in the central nave and slightly elongated in the side aisles. The walls of the latter were fragmented with massive wall pillars forming deep niches in which windows with modestly profiled reveals were placed. The central nave is covered with a stellar, eight-arm vault, and the side aisles with cross-ribbed vaults.

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bibliography:
Jarzewicz J., Architektura średniowieczna Pomorza Zachodniego, Poznań 2019.

Pilch J., Kowalski S., Leksykon zabytków Pomorza Zachodniego i ziemi lubuskiej, 2012.
Website swjozef.stargard.pl, Dzieje kościoła św. Jana Chrzciciela w Stargardzie.