Rybnica Leśna – castle Radosno

History

   The origins of the castle perhaps reach the second half of the 13 century and the prince of Świdnica-Jawor, Bolko IThe stronghold under the name Freudinberg was first recorded in 1350. It was the center of goods with the town of Mieroszów and twelve nearby villages. In the first half of the fourteenth century, it remained in the hands of Reincze, Hans and Jerislav Swenkenvald (Swenkenfelt). In 1355 the castle, which was the shelter of the robbers, was captured by the prince Bolko II od Świdnica. In the unknown circumstances, the castle was handed over to the ruler of the Bohemia and in 1356 together with the adjacent settlements was given by Charles IV in the fiefdom to the Hersko from Rozlowicz. At the transaction the right to pre-emption of the castle was reserved for the ruler. From this right soon took advantage also authorized prince Bolko II. In 1369, after the death of Bolko II, the widow Duchess Agnes gave the castle to the bishop of Wrocław, Przecław from Pogorzela, to which the castle belonged to the year 1376. The next owners of the castle were Gunzel and Nickel von Seidlitz, and since 1388 Heinrich von Rechenberg and his four sons. In 1392, the fortress, like the entire Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor, came into possession of the Czech rulers.
  
During the Hussite Wars the castle was twice besieged by insurgents: in 1427 and 1434, but it is unknown whether it was captured. From the beginning of the 15th century, the castle was taken over by robber knights, and as a result, in 1443 it was destroyed by the townpeople of Wrocław. In 1466 the brothers Hans and Nikolaus von Schellendorf rebuilt the castle and they themselves began to rob. In 1483 the castle was taken over by the army of king Maciej Korwin. In 1497, Georg von Stein, the governor of Władysław Jagiellonian, conquer the castle and destroyed it. Since then, the castle remains in ruins.

Architecture

   The stronghold consisted of the upper castle lying on the ridge of the hill, measuring 17 x 30 meters and a southern outer ward of dimensions 14 x 18 meters. In the first phase a cylindrical tower surrounded by wooden – earth ramparts was built. The tower has a diameter of about 10 meters and has a height of 12 meters. The interior of the lower storey with a diameter of about 2 meters has been covered with a vault. Above it was a room, the space of which was enlarged at the expense of the thickness of the wall. The relics of the tower entrance are located at a height of about 4 meters above today’s ground level.
   In the second stage in the fourteenth century, perimeter walls and a residential building with dimensions of 9.5 x 10.5 meters were erected. The entrance gatehouse was located in a rectangular tower with a side length of 6 meters. In its ground floor there was an entrance portal and two slit windows. The dimensions of the proper castle with rounded corners were 17 x 30 m. From the south, a small outer bailey adjoined it. The defense of the site was raised by a moat carved into the rock, up to 4 meters deep.

Current state

   Up to now, the lower parts of the cylindrical tower have been preserved at a height of 12 meters and small fragments of the ground floor of the residential building.

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bibliography:
Boguszewicz A., Corona Silesiae. Zamki Piastów fürstenberskich na południowym pograniczu księstwa jaworskiego, świdnickiego i ziębickiego do połowy XIV wieku, Wrocław 2010.

Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.