Rogóźno – teutonic castle

History

   The timber fortress in Rogóźno (Roggenhausen) was built by the Teutonic Knights in the years 1250-1260. After 1275 the construction of a brick defensive structure began, which in the years 1285-1333 was the seat of the commander. The first was Wynandus. The castle stood out a prominent location on the eastern bank of the valley, where the road from Grudziądz to the Nowe Miasto Lubawskie ran. This allowed for strategic control of the river and ford. After 1333, the commandry was liquidated, and a vogt seat was created. In the years 1410 and 1414 the castle was occupied by the Polish army, and in 1454 it was burned by the already withdrawn Teutonic Knights. In the years 1466-1590 was the seat of starosts, then placed in the management of the royal economy. In 1628 a part of the fortress blown up the Swedes. Most of the remaining buildings were demolished by the Prussians after 1772 with the purpose of brick for the construction of a fort in Grudziądz.

Architecture

   The castle consisted of three parts. The top of the hill was occupied by the upper castle, preceded from the east by a trapezoidal middle ward with a lofty gatehouse tower. The third element was the extensive outer (lower) ward, located on the neighboring hill and separated from the main stronghold by a moat. This economic ward was similar in shape to the trapezoid and surrounded by a defensive wall with 17 towers. Some of them were half towers, while some probably had the character of bartizans, hanging on the walls. Two entrances led to the lower ward: from the west through the neck gate and from the east through a wide, three-story gatehouse, housing a furnace next to the entrance. The fortifications of the lower ward complemented the moat on the eastern side.
  
Between the middle ward and the lower ward, there was an entry gate facing the west with a 7-story gatehouse tower, preceded by a long neck. There was also a deep, dry moat with a bridge on brick pillars. The middle ward had an irregular, trapezoidal shape. It is known that there was a “summer house” there, and the houses of the teutonic commander and the grand master between it and the tower. In the northern part of the middle castle, there were also economic buildings. The middle and upper castle were surrounded by a common, external defensive wall from the south. In the south-east corner, it was strengthened by a small cylindrical tower.
  
The upper castle consisted of four ranges and was surrounded by the outer perimeter of the walls connecting with the fortifications of the eastern part of the hill. On three sides, it was defended by natural slopes, and from the north – east by artificial ditch with a bridge. The dimensions of the upper castle were 38×45.5 meters. However, its ranges did not form a compact quadrilateral because they did not touch each other in one corner. It is possible that an not built main tower was to stand here. On the first floor of the east range there was a chapter house and a chapel, and in the south range there was a refectory. On the ground floor of the east range there was a bakery, and in a northern range brewery and kitchen. All ranges except the north had cellars. The inner ward was surrounded by timber cloisters, and there was a covered well in the middle. From the outside, the two northern corners of the castle were strengthened by four-sided towers, of which the north-west had buttresses. The building closing the inner ward from the south was flanked two small corner turrets. The east range had the entrance gate in the middle. It is also known that the upper castle had a dansker tower, perhaps it was located at the west range.

Current state

   To this day, from the middle castle survived a long fragment of the outer wall with a round, corner turret. To the north of it stands a monumental gate tower. Around the ruins survived significant stretches of walls, remnants of four half towers and relics of probably still gothic, economic objects. Only weakly legible fragments of the walls survived from the upper castle. At present the area is under private ownership, but there is a possibility to visit the castle.

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bibliography:
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.
Wasik B., Budownictwo zamkowe na ziemi chełmińskiej od XIII do XV wieku, Toruń 2016.