Proszówka – castle Gryf

History

   The first building, probably timber – earth, was established, according to tradition, already in the twelfth century. The present was erected by the son of Henry the Pious, prince Konrad of Głogów, reigning in the 13th century. In 1300, the castle was to be surrounded by walls on the instructions of Bolko I. The construction works within the stronghold were to be conducted also by Henry of Jawor. Until the end of the 14th century, the fortress was owned by the dukes of Świdnica, and after their extinction became the property of the Bohemian king. The indebted king Waclaw IV passed it to the knight Benes of Choustnik. In 1400 he leased his property along with the castle to Gotsche II Schoff. In 1419 it became the property of the Schaffgotsch family and remained in their hands until 1798.
  
In the 17th century the castle was twice occupied by the Swedes. In 1639 it defended itself, but in 1645 capitulated against the attackers. In 1745 the castle was occupied by the Prussian army, and in 1778 it was turned into a strong, early modern fortress. Perhaps the damage done on this occasion caused Schaffgotsch’s resignation from the old seat and accelerated its downfall. In 1799 it was partially demolished for material to build a farm and since then it has remained in ruin.

Architecture

   Located on a high hill, the castle was built of black basalt. The highest situated upper castle was erected on the plan of an irregular, elongated pentagon. The extended main house, approximately 9 x 20 meters, was divided asymmetrically into two rooms and added to the northern part of the walls. The cellar of the building consisted of a vaulted room and a slipway, probably used to roll the barrels. Its exit was near the kitchen (K on the plan), which was located in the corner between the wall and the house. Its presence is evidenced by a stone gutter to disposal sewage, which is embedded in the perimeter wall of the castle. To the left of the early modern gate (in front of the original gate) was a chapel on which wall, the once painted image of the griffin was located. With time, the whole interior of the upper castle was built inside the inner faces of the defensive walls. To the north of the castle was located the middle castle, and from the east was located, occupying the largest area, the lower castle.
   From the west side was the original gate. According to some studies, it had later added foregate and the quadrilateral turret from the north. According to others, it was not a foregate, but a building. It was supposed to lead the entrance from the middle castle to its vaulted grounf floor, and the first floor was to be connected to the courtyard of the upper castle. The second gate leading to the upper castle was placed in the north-east section of the perimeter wall. On its outer side there is a semicircular terrace, perhaps the relics of the semicircular tower.
   
The middle castle is located north of the upper one. It resembled an irregular triangle in the plan. In the north corner a gatehouse was located, and at the eastern section of the perimeter wall there was an early modern quadrilateral building erected in front of the face of the defensive wall. The building in the grounf floor was three-space, cross-vaulted, and one-space on the level of the first floor. Openings for latrines in the south and east wall indicate the residential function of the building, although it could also have defensive functions.
   
From the north and east sides of the hill there was a large lower castle. In its eastern part, a four-sided building with cellar adjoined to the perimeter wall, and along the south-eastern section of the perimeter wall, buildings with proportions of elongated rectangle ran. They were limited by the gate, which consisted of the gatehouse placed inside the perimeter, the foregate and the elongated neck departing from it. In addition, in the southern part of the castle, at the connection of the upper and lower castle, early modern fortifications of irregular outline were located.

Current state

   At present the castle is preserved in the form of a readable ruin. It is privately owned and unfortunately remains in a very neglected state, and the owner does not invest to improve this condition.

show this monument on map

return to alphabetical index

bibliography:
Boguszewicz A., Corona Silesiae. Zamki Piastów fürstenberskich na południowym pograniczu księstwa jaworskiego, świdnickiego i ziębickiego do połowy XIV wieku, Wrocław 2010.

Chorowska M., Rezydencje średniowieczne na Śląsku, Wrocław 2003.
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.