The brick fortifications of Pasłęk (Preußisch Holland) were erected in the first half of the 14th century, in the place of a wooden palisade. In the fifteenth century, the town was destroyed several times during the sieges during the Polish Teutonic wars: in 1410, 1414 and in the years 1454-1466. In the 17th century, already archaic medieval fortifications were reinforced by external, early modern earth bastions. In the 18th century, due to the development of firearms, they lost their importance and began to be dismantlet, treated as an easily available source of building materials. In this way, around 1830, the Pot Gate and the upper parts of the Mill Gate were completely pulled down.
A line of walls about 1200 meters long ran along the perimeter of an irregular polygon, connecting in the north-eastern corner with the fortified walls of the castle. The fortification ring was adapted to the terrain. From the north, the town was protected by a mill canal, and from the north – west by swamps and wet, hard to reach areas. The spatial arrangement inside the fortifications was interestingly solved, where two parts were separated: the northern one with representative and public facilities (castle, parish church, town hall) and the southern one – residential and utility.
The upper, facing parts of the town’s fortifications were built of brick in the monk bond, whereas the foundation parts were made of commonly available granite stones. The wall was crowned with a covered guard porch. The circumference of the fortifications was strengthened by numerous towers, probably open from the town side. They were most densely located in the southern part of the town. Critical places were strengthened with closed towers: Tłuszczowa from the west, Gunpowder from the north and the White Coat Tower from the south. Three gates led to the town: Pot Gate, Stone Gate and Mill Gate.
Till today, the fortifications of Pasłęk have survived on a considerable length. Unfortunately, they are significantly reduced in the vast majority and in terrible condition. The most important element is the preserved Stone Gate in the south-west part of the town. The bottom part of the Mill Gate also survived.
Czubiel L., Domagała T., Zabytkowe ośrodki miejskie Warmii i Mazur, Olsztyn 1969.
Website zabytek.pl, Miejskie mury obronne Pasłęk.