Otmuchów – city defensive walls

History

Otmuchów was granted city rights by bishop Przecław from Pogorzel (Preczlaw of Pogarell) in 1347, founding the town on German law. During his reign, the urban area was extended, and in 1369, the construction of new defensive walls began. It can be assumed that before that, the city had earth and wooden fortifications. In 1428, the Hussites captured the town and conquered it again in 1430. The town and the castle left by taking a high ransom. For the third time they entered the town in 1443 under the command of the knight Hynko Kruszyna. To pay the ransom in exchange for leaving the castle and the town, occurred after a year. After this difficult period, the town lost its position and rank in favor of Nysa. The reconstruction of both the castle and the town walls was ordered by bishop Jan IV Roth in the 80s of the 14th century. Another wave of plunder and destruction brought the town a thirty-year war and the first Silesian war, when the town was bombed and occupied by the Prussian Marshal Schwerin. Demolition of ruined fortifications began in the second half of the 19th century.

Architecture

The defensive walls in Otmuchów were built of stone and brick. The town had three gate towers: Mill from the south, Grodkowska from the north and Nyska from the east, now called Sparrow. The Sparrow Tower was built in the second half of XIV century on a square plan. The bottom part is built of stone and in the upper is brick, the whole is currently covered with plaster. The pointed portal of the gate is made of stone. The tower has 14 arrowslits and 3 windows on the south side. Above the gate portal from the town side, on a large height, there was an entrance to the tower. In 1566, it received a renaissance attic. In the ground floor there is a room with a barrel vault that could serve as a town detention facility. The town was also surrounded by a moat.

Current state

The town walls have survived fragmentarily in several sections. The short section has been preserved near the Nysa Gate at Ogrodowa street, longer section at Cicha street and between the square at Mickiewicza street and allotment gardens. A fragment of fortifications with buttresses, south of the palace known as the lower castle has survived very well. The best preserved element is the Nysa (Sparrow) Gate.

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bibliography:
Website eksploratorzy.com.pl, Otmuchów – Wieża Wróbla i mury obronne.