Moryń – Holy Spirit church

History

   The foundation of the church in Moryń dates back to the beginning of the second half of the 13th century, which makes it one of the oldest sacred monuments of Western Pomerania. The first were the eastern parts of the church, that is chancel and transept, dated ca. 1250-1265. Then the nave was brick up, and the last, tower was built at the end of the 13th century or the beginning of the 14th century. The final end of the medieval building process was the addition of a chapel to the south façade of the transept in the first half of the fifteenth century. Thus shaped block later did not undergo any style transformations, apart from the baroque crowning of the tower.
   
The first mention of the church is contained in a document from 1263, in which the Pomeranian prince Barnim I donates patronage over the church to the monastery in Ückermünde on the Zalew Szczeciński. From the second half of the 13th century, Moryń together with the neighboring territories of the border of the Duchy of Pomerania was incorporated into the Brandenburg state. In 1350, the margraves Ludwik the Older and Ludwik the Roman donated patronage over the church in Moryń to the collegiate church of Myślenice. In the early modern period, the patronage of the Protestant church was performed by the members of the von Schönebeck family, managing the estates in Moryń and Gądno. In the nineteenth century, small amounts of renovation work were carried out in the temple. From 1945, it is a roman Catholic parish.

Architecture

   The orientated church is a three-nave pseudobasilic with a rectangular, elongated chancel, transept slightly protruding beyond the aisles, a two-bay, three-nave corpus and a rectangular tower with passage in the ground floor. From the north to the chancel, the sacristy once adjoined, and a polygonal chapel adjoins the south façade of the transept.
  
The temple is entirely bricked with granite blocks, with different levels of processing in particular parts of the walls. Most elaborately are developed the blocks in the chancel and transept walls, arranged in even layers. The layout in the aisles is already irregular, and the wide joints are filled with mortar and pebbles. The chancel facades are divided by three windows, the eastern one is crowned with a triangular top decorated with blendes. In the southern wall there is a side portal with double jambs. The transept elevations were similarly constructed, with triangular gables with narrow blendes. In the northern wall of the transept, a walled portal is currently installed. Above it is placed an oculus, flanked by two narrow windows. In the choir and transept, window openings, portals and blendes retain original, pointed shapes. In both elevations of the aisles there are four, rhythmically arranged windows. The tower ending the church from the west, was shaped as a defensive structure, with an open, undertower porch.
   The shape of the church is not uniform, because the walls of the side aisles do not bind organically to the walls of the transept and the tower, they give the impression of being added in a rather careless manner. On the western elevations of the transept above the roofs of the side aisles, the outlines of arches of bricked up windows are visible, which can also be seen from the interior of the arcades. If they were opened, they would be non-functional, even with a much smoother roof pitch. Therefore, they had to be designed without taking into account the side aisles, and consequently, at the erection of the eastern part of the church the side aisles were not planed.
  
The interior of the church is covered with the timber ceiling, only the side aisles, which outer walls are much lower than the arcades, were covered directly with the mono-pitched roofs. In the presbytery there is a unique stone altar from the period of construction of the church – the oldest of its kind in Poland. The interior of the temple is also decorated with medieval wall polychromes. The interesting figural representation is painted in the lower part of the transept arcade. Dated in the first half fifteenth century, depicts two devils sitting at the table and one playing the flute. The neighboring scene shows the devil pushing two female figures into the dish.

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bibliography:
Jarzewicz J., Architektura średniowieczna Pomorza Zachodniego, Poznań 2019.
Jarzewicz J., Kościoły romańskie w Polsce, Kraków 2014.
Pilch J., Kowalski S., Leksykon zabytków Pomorza Zachodniego i ziemi lubuskiej, Warszawa 2012.

Website encyklopedia.szczecin.pl, Kościół Ducha Świętego (Moryń).