Moryń – city defensive walls

History

During the early Middle Ages on the island on the lake Morzycko there was a Pomeranian wood and earth stronghold, captured in 1263 by the margraves of Brandenburg. On their initiative, in the first half of the 14th century, defensive walls were built in Moryń. It probably took place just after the location of the town in 1306. In 1320, Moryń became part of the towns of the Neumark, and in the fifteenth century, the Teutonic Order ruled it. During their rule in 1433, the fortifications of the town did not fulfill their role, because Moryń was destroyed by the Hussites. The state of the fortifications was so pitiful at that time, that even its complete demolition was considered, but after 1442 the walls were raised, and the gates were given gable forms. In the 17th century, during the Thirty Years’ War and later, the town and its fortifications were destroyed three times by fires. In 1755, the foregates were pulled down and the moat was filled up. The earth ramparts were completely destroyed in 1819, and the town gates were demolished at the end of the 19th century. In 1874, quite a considerable section of the wall on the west side was pulled down.

Architecture

Defensive walls surrounded the town by a circle with a diameter of 300 meters and an area of about 15 ha. Granite and fieldstone was used for its construction. The length of the circumference was originally around 1420 meters, and the height of the walls reached 6.5 meters. It was reinforced by forty, rectangular half towers. There were also two town gates: Mieszkowicka from the south and Mill Gate (also known as Chojeńska) from the west. In the north-eastern half tower there was a smaller Lake wicket gate, also called Water Gate, leading to the castle. Probably in the fifteenth century, and certainly before 1500, next to the Mieszkowicka Gate, a new passage was pierced. The previous one was walled up and the foregate was erected in front of the building. Perhaps the same was true for the second gate.

Current state

The nearly full line of defensive walls, about 1325 meters long, with no gates, but with a wicket and 31 half towers (part preserved in the form of a ruin) have survived to our times. The height of the walls now reaches up to 4.5 meters.

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bibliography:
Kuna M., Średniowieczne mury miejskie w powiecie gryfińskim na tle sieci miast warownych Pomorza Zachodniego i dawnej wschodniej Brandenburgii, “Rocznik Chojeński” nr 7, s.37-76, Chojna 2015.
Pilch.J, Kowalski S., Leksykon zabytków Pomorza Zachodniego i ziemi lubuskiej, Warszawa 2012.