Milicz – castle


   In Milicz, from the twelfth century, there was a castellan’s residence, then the local goods belonged to the archbishopric of Gniezno, and from 1358 to the chapter of Wrocław. It was previously believed that the castle was built after the mid-fourteenth century for the Duke of Oleśnica, Konrad I, but it probably comes from the thirteenth century, and Konrad only expanded it. From 1494, already Czech Milicz, was owned by Zygmunt Kurzbach, who after the fire, made a reconstruction and renaissance rebuilding. In 1590, the castle was ruled by von Maltzan family, to which it belonged until 1945. In the 17th century, further alterations took place, and at the end of the 18th century, a cotton spinning mill was set up in the former stronghold. In 1797 a fire destroyed the building.


   The castle was built of brick on an irregular polygon plan, surrounded by a earth rampart and a moat, and perhaps a timber palisade. The main element was a quadrilateral, three-story building with dimensions of 14.5 x 25-26.3 meters in the southern part of the courtyard. It had a two-bay interior and four external, massive buttresses, located on the extension of the longer sides. It was built of stone in the ground floor (which was partly hollowed in the embankment of the hill) and brick (in the flemish bond) on the level of the two upper storeys.
Most important room od the building was a large representative chamber on the second floor, warmed by a fireplace set in the middle of the wall. The kitchen and basement were located below, all separated from each other with timber ceilings. From the representative room, it had access to a bedroom or a private room next to it,  under which utility rooms were located, and in one of the south buttresses a latrine, which was reached by a narrow passage. The litter were releaseed in a vertical shaft directly into the moat.
In the 14th century, the castle was extended with a brick circumference of defensive walls and a gatehouse. The residential building, after enlarging the mound’s plateau, obtained the form of a three-bay palace with a length of about 36.3 meters.

Current state

   The fragments of brick walls of the 13/14th-century residential building and the remains of buildings erected at a later time have survived to our times. The walls of the southern part survived almost to the full height, the center to about half, and the outline of the northern part was unveiled during archaeological excavations. There are also visible traces of the moat surrounding the castle. The monument urgently needs renovation, thanks to which it would be possible to visit it.

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Chorowska M., Rezydencje średniowieczne na Śląsku, Wrocław 2003.
Kolenda J., Medieval bishops palace in Milicz, “Studies in Digital Heritage”, vol. 1, no. 2,  2017.
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.
Nowakowski D., Śląskie obiekty typu motte, Wrocław 2017.