Lubin – castle

History

   Within the present castle area there was a defensive hillfort, then a castellan with a wood-and-earth construction from the 13th century. Its location at the intersection of important trade routes significantly influenced the establishment of the city. The construction of the brick castle was probably started by the prince of Żagań, Konrad II, at the beginning of the fourteenth century, and the expansion was made in 1349 by the duke Ludwik I. Until 1359, the castle was the main seat of the prince, who then moved to Brzeg. The end of functioning of the castle was brought by the Thirty Years War, when during the siege by the Swedish army under the command of general Stallhanns, it was almost completely destroyed. It has never been completely rebuilt. In the middle of the 18th century, the castle chapel was still open, but the remaining elements of the castle were pulled down.

Architecture

   The castle at the time of Louis I of Brzeg consisted of an irregular quadrilateral of brick defense walls. Their foundation parts were erected from erratic stones and partially worked stones laid on lime mortar. At the north – west corner there was a free standing, foursided tower with dimensions of 10.5 x 13 meters, perhaps the oldest element of the castle, erected originally on a natural hill surrounded by wetlands. The top of the tower had a crenellation, additionally it had two window openings, probably corresponding to its upper storeys. Overall, it probably had three above-ground floors and a basement.
   In the south-eastern corner there was a main house with dimensions of 12.3 x 14.9 meters adjoining the walls. Its north-east and north-west walls were added to the perimeter wall. The cellar was covered with a barrel vault made of pebbles and brick rubble, bonded with lime mortar. In the north-west façade, from the side of the courtyard, there were two entry openings to the basements, covered with semicircular arches. Inside, relics of the hypocaustum furnace were discovered, warming the upper rooms with warm air.
   In the western part there was a gatehouse. To the south of it, in the corner, erected in front of the curtain, stood a castle chapel, flanked by a small turret. At first the chapel might not have a separate chancel. The most valuable is its tympanum above the northern portal, from 1349. The chapel was originally linked with the gatehouse, which at the level of the floor was connected with its matroneum. Probably, there was also a connection between the gatehouse and the main tower. The castle, lying on lowland, swampy terrain, was equipped with a system of moats. It did not connect with the town fortifications.

Current state

   From the Lubin fortress has survived only the castle’s chapel, rebuilt in the baroque period, when it was extended by the presbytery, and by the south by two outbuildings. After renovation, the building has been adapted since 1990 to the Castle Gallery.

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bibliography:
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.
Nowakowski D., Siedziby książęce i rycerskie księstwa głogowskiego w średniowieczu, Wrocław 2008.