Legnica – castle

History

   The Legnica town was one of the oldest and most important settlement centers of early medieval Silesia. The first wooden – earth fortifications were erected around the 8th century by the Slav tribe Trzebowianie. Then, around 985, during the reign of Mieszko I, a new hillfort was built to protect Silesia after its annexation to the Piasts monarchy. In its place at the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, a castle was built, which was one of the first brick strongholds in Poland. It was the main residence of prince Bolesław I the High and his son Henryk the Bearded. Its strength is confirmed by the fact that it successfully defended against the Mongol besieged in 1241.
  
In the fifteenth century, the reconstruction of the castle was initiated by prince Ludwik II, and then it was continued by Frederick II at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The new fortifications were in the form of earth ramparts and four corner low towers surrounded by a moat. At that time, the castle hosted many rulers, numerous parties and feasts were organized. Among them, the wedding of prince Henry IX with Zofia, daughter of George Hohenzollern in 1560, or a feast lasting five days on the occasion of the visit of emperor Maximilian, attended by two thousand guests.
  
In the 17th century, prince George Rudolf rebuilt the eastern and southern wing and erected the clock tower. Around 1660, a new Lubiń Gate was built, reinforcing it with a foregate. In 1675, the line of Legnica-Brzeg Piasts died out, and the castle passed under the rule of Habsburg governors. In 1711, the castle was destroyed by fire. Later reconstruction gave it the character of a baroque palace. Further fires touched the castle in 1835, 1840 and for the last time in 1945. It was rebuilt in the 1960s.

Architecture

    The castle erected by Bolesław I the Tall or his son Henry the Bearded, in the place of the former hillfort, consisted of a large brick palas with dimensions of 16×61 meters. It was a three-story building with a height of about 12 meters. Above the economic ground floor was the first floor, 2.5 meters high. From the side of the inner ward, it had a row of alternate entrances with semi-circular portals and small windows. This allows us to assume that the first floor was divided originally in six rooms. Both the ground floor and the first floor were covered with timber, flat ceilings. The second floor, judging by a 6-meter high, was occupied by a representative hall and princely rooms. In the eastern part, there was a huge great hall, lit by six large windows, probably biforas, opposite each other. These openings were closed from the inside with timber shutters, because the ducts on the gate valves have preserved. Great hall maximum dimensions could be 32 x 13.5 meters, and the interior probably was divided by columns into two aisles and covered with a beam ceiling. The entrance to the hall was centrally located in the northern wall and led directly from the inner courtyard. The communication between the floors was probably provided by external stairs from the side of the courtyard. In the thickness of the walls there was also a vaulted passage, equipped with a small openning and piscine. It probably led to the outer latrine. Three princely chambers were located on the western side, openings in the form of oculus, a corner fireplace and another corridor in the wall thickness were discovered there. It was either a secret connection or a passage to the latrine.

   At the southern facade of the palace there was a magnificent chapel, dating from 1220-1230. It was a free-standing, two-story building on a regular polygon plan with a separate presbytery ended with an apse. Inside there was a rib vault. The upper storey, probably holding a private prince’s chapel, was connected with a palas by timber porch.
   
In addition, monumental brick towers with brick walls were built during this period. They strengthened the older, timber – earth ramparts, surrounding the castle. Eastern tower of St. Peter was on the set of a circle, about 10 meters in diameter. In its basement there was a prison cell. The second one, called the tower of St. Hedwig, lies in the south – west corner of the castle. The present shape in the form of an octagonal superstructure owes to works from the beginning of the 15th century. In the 13th century it was about 13 meters high. In the basement, it housed a prison, and the upper parts had a residential function. The third tower, so-called Lubińska, stood at the northern section of the defense circuit. It was built on a square plan with a side length of about 4.6 meters. In its vicinity there was a gate leading to the outer bailey.
     
In the second half of the fifteenth century, the duke Frederick I made the rebuilding of the palas. It obtained a symmetrical plan with large rooms in the middle and apartments consisting of a hallway and two rooms on the sides. The lower rooms and the great hall were vaulted, the upper great hall was covered with a timber ceiling. It opened to the inner courtyard by windows in large, pointed recesses with seats. Smaller chambers were lit by windows in
curtain frames, some of them were converted into bay windows, mounted on stone corbels. Their representative purpose is demonstrated by the remains of paintings on the wall’s plaster. In one of the corridors there was a staircase leading to the basement, and in each of them two external entrances led to the cloisters or timber gallery.

Current state

   The Legnica castle in terms of ideological, artistic and architectural program was second to none in contemporary Poland. Its founder, prince Henry the Bearded, referred to court constructions of the first Piasts, but also to the imperial palases of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Only the towers of St. Peter and St. Hedwig have survived to our times, the shape of the palas remains quite clear. Relics of a romanesque chapel, exposed during conservation works, have survived too. The Legnica castle has recently undergone revitalization. It is available to tourists, but it is visited only to a limited extent because of educational institutions located in historic buildings.

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bibliography:
Chorowska M., Rezydencje średniowieczne na Śląsku, Wrocław 2003.
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.
Przyłęcki M., Budowle i zespoły obronne na Śląsku, Warszawa 1998.