Kościelec Kaliski – St Adalbert’s Church

History

   Church of St Adalbert probably comes from the first half of the 12th century. In the 14th century the apse wall was raised by a brick part to the height of the nave, thus enabling the whole to be covered with one roof. In the 18th century, a wooden and wider nave and a chapel were added to the church, and in 1955 an ugly vestry was added from the south.

Architecture

   The Romanesque church was built of irregular granite cubes and blocks of sandstone with walls 1 meter thick. The upper part of its walls was built in the later medieval period with brick in the monk bond, and above the apse in the Flemish bond. The lighting of the Romanesque building was originally provided by small, semicircularly closed, splayed windows in the southern wall and the apse. The northern wall, according to the medieval building tradition, had no openings. This practice was undoubtedly of practical importance, because it was from the east and south that one could get the most sunlight. It is also possible that this practice resulted from medieval mysticism which reserved the north side for evil powers from which it was necessary to separate. The entrance led from the south through the Romanesque portal.

Current state

   The oldest part of the church that has survived today is the Romanesque, granite chancel with an apse, currently serving as the presbytery of a larger, early modern temple. In the Romanesque part, on the southern wall and the apse, semicircular, splayed Romanesque window openings have been preserved, while the north window has been pierced later. On the southern side there is a Romanesque portal with a stonemason’s mark on the jamb, currently covered with a brick sacristy.

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bibliography:
Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Ruszczyńska T., Sławska A., t. V, z. 6 pow. kaliski, Warszawa 1960.
Świechowski Z., Architektura romańska w Polsce, Warszawa 2000.