Kazimierz Biskupi – St Martin’s Church

History

   The romanesque church of St. Martin (originally dedicated to Saint Matthew) was built in the second half of the 12th century. According to tradition, its construction was to be associated with the cult and martyrdom of the Five Hermits Brothers of the rule of St. Romuald and the hermitage which was to be built at the place of their death. In fact, the church was built in a market settlement located on the land route, combined to the water route running at a short distance, connecting Greater Poland with Kuyavia and Pomerania. From the early period of the church’s functioning there is no mention of it. The earliest record is dated only to 1418, when the priest of Kazimierz was mentioned twice.
   Around 1512 church was rebuilt in the late gothic style from the foundation of bishop Jan Lubrański. In the following centuries the church suffered fires several times, among others in 1613 and during the Swedish invasion of 1656. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, it was burned by the Swedish army of Charles XII, then rebuilt, burned again in 1792 and enlarged in 1859. Then it obtained a new, ugly west facade and a porch on the south side. In the years 1898-1911 the church underwent further renovations, but during the Second World War after being looted it was used as a grain warehouse. The post-war renovation was carried out in 1988-1989 and 1995.

Architecture

   The church was built in the eastern part of the village on a rectangular plan with a length of 11.5 meters from unworked granite and partly from sandstone blocks. On the eastern side, a narrower chancel finished with a semi-circular apse was added to the nave. Both the nave and the chancel were placed on a pedestal formed of four rows of pebbles, on which two rows of large blocks rested.
    At the beginning of the 16th century, the nave was extended by about 7 meters to the west. During the expansion, partly brick, partly sandstone from the demolished facade were used. Then, from the north, the sacristy and treasury were added. This annex covers the entire lower part of the chancel and the eastern fragment of the nave. It consists of two separate parts, fastened by northern facade. The sacristy received a barrel vault with lunettes inside.

Current state

   From the romanesque period, the apse, walls of the chancel and the lower parts of the nave walls have been preserved. From the south you can see a walled romanesque portal. The remains of walled, pointed windows and medieval house marks are preserved on the buttressed walls. From the gothic period, the western part of the sacristy and the nave is visible except the facade.

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bibliography:
Jarzewicz J., Kościoły romańskie w Polsce, Kraków 2014.
Maluśkiewicz P., Gotyckie kościoły w Wielkopolsce, Poznań 2008.
Różański A., Jednoprzestrzenne kościoły romańskie z terenu Wielkopolski, Poznań 2010.

Webpage zabytek.pl, Kościół katolicki pw. św. Marcina Biskupa Kazimierz Biskupi.