Kamień Pomorski – city defensive walls

History

   In the period from the 9th to the 11th century, Wolin was a wooden – earth hillfort belonging to the Wolinian tribe. Then, until 1187, it was the seat of the West Pomeranian dukes, captured by Bolesław Krzywousty in 1120. In 1176 it became the seat of the bishopric moved from Wolin, and from 1295 it was under the Wołogoszcz Duchy.
   The brick town walls in Kamień Pomorski come from the first half of the 14th century.
Its construction began in relation with the Brandenburg threat, although the need to build fortifications was already signaled in the location privilege of prince Barnim I in 1274. This hardship caused that in 1308 an unprotected town was conquered and plundered by the Brandenburg army. After this event, work began on building brick fortifications from three sides of the town, from the Dziwna side there was still a timber palisade. At the same time, work to fortify the cathedral complex was carried out. It is assumed that the construction of the fortifications of the town and the cathedral was completed only in the fifteenth century.
  
The town and its fortifications suffered major damages during the Thirty Years War of 1618-1648. In 1637 Kamień was taken over by the Swedes, because the medieval defense system has already lost its importance. In 1640, the Swedes made the town surrounded by early modern bastion fortifications. They were demolished in 1794. Medieval town gates were demolished in the first half of the 19th century in order to be used for building material. The town walls from the south and east were demolished in 1918-1920, in the northern part they were often used as back walls for new buildings.

Architecture

   The length of the defensive walls was originally about 1040 meters, not including the fortifications of the cathedral and chapter buildings. The defensive wall was reinforced with eight towers, including three on the side of the reservoir (Fisherman, Town and Butter). From the land side, the wall had five towers and additionally two moats, separated by an earth rampart. The towers had a closed, cylindrical form and also were half towers, open from the town side. Originally two main gates led to the town: Wolińska from the west and Cathedral from the east, and smaller wicket gates Monastery, Butter and Fisherma.

Current state

   Fragments of the defensive wall along the Kamień Lagoon and the gate with the Wolin Tower have survived to this day. Since 2001, it houses the Museum of Stones, which provides visitors with a rich collection of minerals and fossils, precious and semi-precious stones, skeletons of dinosaurs, meteors, and an exhibition of medieval military. An additional attraction are two observation terraces.

show Wolin’s Gate on map

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bibliography:
Pilch.J, Kowalski S., Leksykon zabytków Pomorza Zachodniego i ziemi lubuskiej, Warszawa 2012.