Jeziorany – castle of Warmian bishops

History

   The brick bishop’s castle of Seeburg began to be built in the mid-fourteenth century under the reign of bishop John of Meisnia and his successor, John Stryprock. At that time, this area was inhabited by the Prussian Bart tribe, and the surrounding areas were overgrown with forests and cut by numerous rivers and lakes. Work on the construction of the castle lasted until around 1400. Already, however, in 1414 Jeziorany was burned by the army of Polish king Jagiełło. The Thirteen Years’ War brought further destruction: in 1461 and 1472, the buildings were destroyed by a fire.
  
In the years 1478-1479, due to the disagreement of the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon to the election of the new bishop of Warmia, Nicholas Tungen, the War of the Priests broke out. The royal army entered the bishopric, but Nicholas Tungen, having obtained the support of the Teutonic Order, decided to fight. In 1472, in order to facilitate the defense of the castle, Polish troops burned the outer ward to make it difficult to approach the main castle walls. Although the town itself was captured then, the castle however fought off  assaults.
  
The wars with Sweden in the 17th century brought further devastation. However, the castle was rebuilt and was the residence of the Warmian bishops until the first partition of Poland. After a fire in 1783, the Prussian administration undressed two ranges, and another range ceased to exist after the Second World War.

Architecture

   The castle was erected on a small hill with slopes from three sides and a fourth, eastern one milder. In order for the stronghold and the settlement to be surrounded by a system of moats, the course of the river was probably changed, which was led from the southern side of the hill by a new bed. Castle consisted of two ranges with brick galleries: south and west, later complemented by further buildings next to the other curtains. The cloisters were erected in the last phase of the construction, at the end of the 14th century.
  
The most important role was played by the western house, four-storey and with cellar. It had a chapel in the southern part on the first floor. The remaining part of this storey was occupied by four rooms, probably a burgrave’s flat and guest rooms. The chapel had a stellar vault and was covered with colorful polychromes. The rooms are known only for having timber, richly decorated ceilings. The ground floor was occupied by the armory, bakery and pantry from the north. The cellars had groin vaults and were accessible only from the courtyard level, it served as storage facilities.
  
The second, south range of the castle had three floors and there was no cellars. In the western part of the ground floor there was a kitchen with a groin vault supported by two columns, and in the eastern part, also a vaulted brewery. On the first floor in the eastern part there was a refectory, the neighboring chambers were probably intended for the bishop and his court. The room at the refectory was fitted with a toilet.
  
In the south – east corner rose a tall, cylindrical tower on a square, stone pedestal. In its lowest storey there was a prison dungeon, which was entered through the hatch in the floor above. At the outer façade of the southern range there was a dansker, that is a toilet tower, to which ran a porch on brick arches. The inner courtyard of the castle was paved. The entrance gate was located from the east, and further there was a small, fortified outer ward. It had walls in four-sided plan and buildings at the northern and southern curtains. The northern house was built in half-timbered construction, there were stables and haystacks. In the south range there were a stable, coach house, grain warehouse and other utility rooms.
  
The castle in Jeziorany was erected by the same building workshop that built the castle in Reszel. Thanks to this, its plan was very similar, only reversed. This is also confirmed by similar arrangements of rooms of main houses and basements.

Current state

   To this day, the heavily rebuilt west wing of the castle has survived, its ground walls and cellars constitute the remains of the former stronghold. Currently, it is the seat of the Municipal Office.

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bibliography:
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.
Garniec M., Garniec-Jackiewicz M.,  Zamki państwa krzyżackiego w dawnych Prusach, Olsztyn 2006.