Gniew – city defensive walls

History

   The construction of defensive walls in Gniew began after the foundation of the town in 1297. The construction was to be carried out by the Teutonic Order itself, which captured Gniew as a result of dynastic disputes of Pomeranian rulers. The new owners wanted to make the town and the castle a fortified starting point for the conquest of neighboring lands. Gniew also became an important link binding the defensive line on the Vistula and protected the river ferry. The exact start time of construction works is unknown. The foundation document only states that “we undertake to strengthen the town when the brothers consider this to be the most favorable for them and for this land.” This commitment was exceptional and testified to the importance of Gniew for the Teutonic Knights. For this reason, it is assumed that the construction of the city walls was not delayed for too long, and the above reservation was associated only with the priority of fortifying the castle.
   Modernization works were carried out in the later years of the 14th century, when a second belt of fortifications was added to part of the circuit, and in the 15th century, probably after the experience of the defeat of the Teutonic Order in the Great War with Poland. It is also possible that modernizations were associated with the reconstruction of the castle from 1422, when, after resignation, the recent Grand Master Michael Küchmeister moved from Malbork to Gniew.
   During the Thirteen Years’ War, the city walls and especially the gates suffered damages, although they were quite effective in resisting attacks. The city was captured only after prolonged sieges and the cut off of ammunition and food. After signing the Second Peace of Toruń in 1466 and Gniew returning with Pomerania to the borders of the Polish kingdom, the city lost its strategic importance, so it was not in a hurry to repair its fortifications.
   In the 17th century, due to the growing threat from the Swedes, medieval fortifications were strengthened by building earthworks and bastions. Hetman Koniecpolski took care of the modernization of the fortifications, creating a defense of ferry at the Vistula in Gniew, but the early modern ramparts were quickly destroyed. In 1664 they were already described as dilapidated. Beginning in the 18th century, the medieval city fortifications began to fall into ruin, and in the 19th century, all city gates and parts of the Gothic defensive walls were demolished.

Architecture

   The medieval town was located in the immediate vicinity of the castle, on its west side. Its layout referred to an older settlement and former roads that led north, along the Vistula, north-west to Gdańsk, Pelplin and Starogard, and to the road leading south to the port on the Wierzyca River. The fortifications have an irregular shape similar to an oval with a more strongly outlined, though rounded corner on the south-west side and a straight eastern curtain, adjacent to the ditch separating the town from the castle. In addition, on the south-eastern side, a diagonally located wall line ran out of the fortifications ring, constituting the closure of the outer bailey foreground and acting as an additional protection of the riverside areas with the harbour and mills. On the southern side, the foreground of the city fortifications was protected by the Wierzyca River, flowing into the Vistula in the east. The outer fortification zone was irrigated moat, preceding the walls from the north and west. In the south, the river escarpment was sufficient protection.
   The length of the fortifications was about 750 meters, while their construction proceeded in sections of about 15 meters (this is indicated by vertical joints visible until today). The walls were made of bricks, but they were placed on a special foundation about 1 meter high, in which irregular stone boulders, connected with mortar and brick debris, were included. The bricks were usually laid in a Flemish bond (stretcher and head alternately in each layer), but monk bonds were also used (alternately two stretcher and head). The wall thickness was about 1.2 meters. It was originally crowned with a battlement, along which a wooden porch for defenders ran from the town side. On the foreground of the town, an underwall street ran along the defensive walls. Its task was to facilitate the communication of defenders and faster movement during threat.
   The city walls were reinforced with 14 towers, rectangular, two-storey, open from the town side and protruding in front of the line of walls. Two more towers on the west side were cylindrical, probably due to the proximity of the main gate to the town (Gdańsk Gate). They were created a little later, in the first half of the 15th century. At the level of the second floor, rectangular towers were equipped with loop holes, while at the top they were probably topped with battlements, later replaced with roofs. The towers were placed on each side except the eastern one, adjacent to the castle.
   In the 14th century a second strip of the city wall was erected on the south-west side, providing additional protection on the section from the Gdańsk Gate to the Water Gate. It was probably slightly lower than the main perimeter, but reinforced with four half-towers: two semicircular and two quadrilateral.
   Four gates led to the town: the Malbork Gate on the north side, the Gdańsk Gate from the west, the Water Gate facing south towards the Wierzyca River and the Castle Gate, as the name implies, being a connection with the Teutonic stronghold. In the vicinity of the Malbork Gate, the wall was connected with the fortifications of the castle, while the Mill Gate in the south-east and the Dybowska Gate in the north enabled communication between the town and the castle, access to the mills and fishing.

Current state

   To this day, two fragments of the city walls have survived with small breaks and of an incomplete height. North-west route along Górny Podmur and Sobieskiego streets with three towers and a south-west fragment at Dolny Podmur street. Unfortunately, today the fortifications are largely obscured by garages and other modern buildings.

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Bibliography:
Strzelecka I., Gniew, Warszawa 1982.
Sypek A., Sypek R., Zamki i obiekty warowne Pomorza Gdańskiego, Warszawa 2003.