Dybów – castle

History

The castle in Dybów on the left bank of the Vistula, opposite then Teutonic Toruń, ordered to erect king Władysław Jagiełło around 1425. The seat of the royal burgrave served to secure the Polish bank of the river and controlled the movement of ships on the river. In 1431, the stronghold was conquered by the teutonic armies and townsmen of Toruń, but by virtue of the agreement of 1435, it returned to the Polish Crown. In 1465 king Kazimierz Jagiellończyk gave the castle to the governor of Inowrocław, Jan Kościelecki, and the starosty and customs chamber were established there. From the 17th century, the building was already in bad condition, aggravated by the explosion of gunpowder during the Swedish wars. Despite this, in 1813, forty Frenchmen, under the command of Lieutenant Savara, withstood the three-month siege of the Russians in the castle, capitulating only with town Toruń.

Architecture

The castle probably arose in three stages. At the beginning of the second quarter of the fifteenth century, a brick castle house was erected on a rectangular plan with dimensions of 13,5x15x46 meters. It was a building with three floors and a basement. Residential and representative rooms were located on the first floor. From the northwest, it was provided with a powerful buttress, probably functioning as a latrine. In the short period of the Teutonic rule, curtain walls were created surrounding the courtyard measuring 28×52 meters. The building was adapted to the seat of the convent and a chapel was placed in it. The entrance gate was located in a quadrangular tower, extended to the form of an advanced foregate. The next phase of construction took place around 1450. Then, the perimeter walls were raised, placing in the corners three overhanging, brick turrets adapted for the use of firearms. The gatehouse was also modernized. The whole was surrounded by a moat powered by the Vistula waters.

Current state

To this day, the entire circumference of the defensive walls with the lower parts of cylindrical turrets, two walls of the residential building and the reconstructed gatehouse have been preserved. The area of the castle is currently not developed, and admission for tourists is free.

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bibliography:
Leksykon zamków w Polsce, L.Kajzer, S.Kołodziejski, J.Salm, Warszawa 2003.