Chełmno – church of the Apostles Peter and Paul

History

   The construction of the church of the Apostles Peter and Paul began the Dominicans in the 4th quarter of the 13th century, although there are earlier fragments of the late-romanesque building from around 1240-1250. At the end of the 13th or in the first half of the 14th century, the chancel and the nave were built, initially in the form of an asymmetrical two-nave hall with six bays, which in the third quarter of the fourteenth century was transformed into an asymmetrical, three-nave hall.
  
An important event in the history of the church was the reconstruction of the main corpus in the 17th century. A baroque vault was opened on six huge pillars. This has changed the previous hall layout of the church into a basilica. Also, the porch and sacristy and the monastery were rebuilt.
  
In 1720 a fire on the roof took place, and in 1829, the Prussian authorities liquidated the order and the church’s decor was moved to other Catholic churches. A year later, monastery buildings adjacent to the church were burnt down. From 1841, the new owner – Evangelical commune – adopted the church to meet its needs. It stayed in their hands until 1945, when after over a hundred years it became a Catholic temple again.

Architecture

   The church was built of bricks, orientated towards the sides of the world. In the first half of the fourteenth century, the nave was built in the form of a two-nave hall with six bays. It was rebuilt in the third quarter of the fourteenth century, then a third, very narrow northern aisle was added. Ultimately, church reached 54.5 meters internal length and 19.3 meters wide. Due to the fact that it stood on the edge of the Vistula embankment, it received solid foundations and walls, which thickness in the chancel is 1.5 meters.
   The church chancel received three bays and was closed with half of an octagon. It is 22.9 meters long, 8.7 meters wide, and 19.2 meters high. It was the first soaring interior in the Chełmno Land. The slender choir was then a completely new phenomenon in gothic architecture of the Chełmno, starting a new stage, characterized by a steady increase in the height of the building. From the outside, the chancel was reinforced with stepped buttresses. Its interior, once only available to monks, was topped with a rib vault and stellar vault in one bay. They fall on the carved corbels on the walls. The ancillary columns come in two varieties: the older in the form of circular, suspended on conical corbels with spiral, vegetable and tracery decorations, and younger ancillary columns in bundles, five-split, mounted on corbels with a mermaid and lion motif and with tracery decoration.

   The largest architectural decoration of the temple is the beautiful western gable, which is 31 m high and 19 m wide.
It is asymmetrical in relation to the chancel, which is clearly visible when you look from the steps of the altar towards the entrance. When entering the church, pay attention to the pointed, gothic portal made of profiled bricks. Inside, in 1969, frescos from the fourteenth century were discovered depicting the Slaughter of the Innocents and Golgotha.

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bibliography:
Mroczko T., Architektura gotycka na ziemi chełmińskiej, Warszawa 1980.
Webpage wnmpchelmno.pl, Kościół świętych Apostołów Piotra i Pawła.