Biskupin – archaeological open-air museum

History

    On the basis of dendrochronological research on wooden elements, it was established that the gord was created during the Lusatian culture, most likely in 738 BC and was settled for another 150 years. After leaving it, most likely due to rising water level in the lake, in the 5th / 4th century BC, another, this time an open settlement was established. Its population was engaged in agriculture, fishing, gathering and craft. The final fall was associated with the rise of the significance of the Piast dynasty in the tenth century.

Architecture

    The settlement established on the marshy island of the Biskupin lake, had an oval shape and area of about 2 ha. There were about 106 houses inside, on average 8×10 meters, arranged with rows. The streets dividing them were covered with wood. The entire complex was surrounded by a box-shaped, wood-and-earth rampart, 640 meters long, 3 meters wide, and a presumed height of up to 6 meters, in which the entrance gate was located. The gord was surrounded by a breakwater with a width of 2 to 9 meters, built of diagonally driven stakes.

Current state

    Biskupin is one of the most famous archaeological sites in Poland. It was discovered in 1933, thanks to melioration and irrigation works that led to a reduction of the level of waters in the Biskupin lake. The local population began to find antique objects, not realizing the importance of the discovery. Local teacher Walenty Szwajcer informed the local authorities, which, however, did not show any special interest. It was only to reach professor Józef Kostrzewski from Poznań, that the decision to start the research was made in the same year. Excavations in Biskupin, carried out in the interwar period, as well as after the war, were an example of the highest possible level of methodological research at that time, constituting a model to follow not only in Poland, but also abroad.
  
The stronghold in Biskupin contains full-size reconstructions of the defensive rampart, breakwater, gates, streets and residential buildings. In addition, you can visit the reconstructed neolithic homestead of the first farmers from 4,000 BC, the village of early Piast from the X-XI century, and a mesolithic camp with 8,000 BC. In addition to the reconstructions, in Biskupin there is a museum, and every third week of September there is a Biskupin festival there, including experimental presentations and reconstructive shows. The Archaeological Museum in Biskupin with the archaeological reserve can be visited throughout the year, every day from 8.00 to 18.00, only during the winter to dusk.

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