Biała Prudnicka – city defensive walls

History

    The city defensive walls in Biała Prudnicka were built probably in the early 15th century. The upper limit of creation is determined by the document of prince John of 1502, listing the walls, which were then already in very poor condition. A special subsidy for their repair was probably connected with the action taken by the prince to protect against Turkish invasions.

Architecture

    The city was founded on a hill, it was surrounded from the west and north by the Biała river, from the east by a moat, and from the south by a moat and a earth ramparts. From the north the city was strengthened by the castle. The walls were built of brick, and pebbles were used for the foundation, which also filled the interior of the main wall. The city’s perimeter was about 1050 meters long, which enabled the 7,85 ha to be closed by walls. The thickness of the wall was 1,20 meters, and the height of the preserved parts reaches an average of 3,5 meters.
   
The curtain of straight walls was reinforced by fairly spaced towers. They were originally open from the inside, and the distance between them was on average about 50 meters. In total, the city was defended by 14, mostly semicircular towers whose height did not exceed the height of the curtain wall. In addition, the city was protected by the powerful Nysa Tower at the Prudnik Gate from the south. It was built of brick on a square plan, in the walls has narrow arrowslits placed in pointed arch recesses, and in the finial of the walls there is a double row of arcades.
     
Two gates led to the city: Nysa Gate from the north and Prudnik Gate from the south. The Nysa Gate was located next to the castle and had an elongated neck of over 8,4 meters in length, and was additionally protected by the castle tower. Originally, it probably had the form of a rectangular building with passage. The Prudnik Gate was perhaps just a wide wicket gate in the curtain, flanked by tower.

Current state

    Currently there are eight semi-circular and one rectangular towers in the wall perimeter. In addition, you can see the traces, in the form of a fragment of the wall, after the former Nysa Gate at Góra Wolności street. The walls were reinforced by ramparts and moats, after which traces preserved in the form of elevations and depressions, from the southern side at Władysław Reymont street, and behind the walls at Wałowa street, whose name confirms the existence of fortifications around the city (“wał” means in Polish earth rampart). The best preserved element of the fortifications is the gothic tower called Nyska or Prudnik.

show Nysa Tower on map

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bibliography:
Eysymontt J., Studium historyczno-architektoniczne murów miejskich w Białej Prudnickiej, Wrocław 1974.
Strona internetowa skladnica-gornoslaska.pl, Miasto Biała i mury obronne.